The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link billions of devices worldwide. Unlike online services, which are centrally controlled, by design, the Internet is decentralized.
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.
An intranet is a network based on TCP/IP protocols (an internet) belonging to an organization, usually a corporation, accessible only by the organization’s members, employees, or others with authorization. Like the Internet itself, intranets are used to share information. Secure intranets are now the fastest growing segment of the Internet because they are much less expensive to build and manage than private networks based on proprietary protocols.
An extranet is a website that allows controlled access to partners, vendors and suppliers or an authorized set of customers – normally to a subset of the information accessible from an organization’s intranet.
The World Wide Web (WWW) is an open source information space where documents and other web resources are identified by URLs, interlinked by hypertext links, and can be accessed via the Internet. It has become known simply as the Web.
An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet.
Downloading is a broad term that describes when you make a personal copy of something you find on the Internet or World Wide Web.
Texting is the short way to say ‘text messaging’, the sending of short electronic notes usually from a cell phone or handheld electronic device. Texting is popular with people who are mobile and away from their desk computers.
I.M. (usually spelled ‘IM’ without the periods) is instant messaging, a form of modern online chatting. IM is somewhat like texting, somewhat like email, and very much like sending notes in a classroom. IM uses specialized no-cost software that you install on your computer or mobile device (e.g. WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, Hike, Hangout)
URL’s, or ‘uniform resource locators’, are the web browser addresses of internet pages and files. A URL works together with IP addresses to help us name, locate, and bookmark specific pages and files for our web browsers. (e.g. http://www.ocesb.wordpress.com)
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of Data communication for the World Wide Web. Hypertext is structured text that uses logical links (hyperlinks) between nodes containing text.
Is ‘hypertext transfer protocol SECURED this means that the web page has a special layer of encryption added to hide your personal information and passwords. Whenever you log into your online bank or your web email account, you should see https at the front of the page address.
A browser is a free software package that lets you view web pages, graphics, and most online content. Browser software is specifically designed to convert HTML and XML into readable documents. The most popular web browsers are: Google Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Safari.
Email (formerly spelled e-mail with a hyphen) is electronic mail. It is the sending and receiving of typewritten messages from one screen to another. Email is usually handled by a webmail service (e.g. Gmail or Yahoo mail), or an installed software package (e.g. Microsoft Outlook).
Blogs and Blogging
A blog (‘web log’) is a modern online writer’s column. Amateur and professional writers publish their blogs on most every kind of topic: their hobby interest in paintball and tennis, their opinions on health care, their commentaries on celebrity gossip, photo blogs of favorite pictures, tech tips on using Microsoft Office. Absolutely anyone can start a blog, and some people actually make reasonable incomes by selling advertising on their blog pages.
Social media is the broad term for any online tool that enables users to interact with thousands of other users. Instant messaging and chatting are common forms of social media, as are blogs with comments, discussion forums, video-sharing and photo-sharing websites. Facebook.com and Google Plus are very large social media sites, as are YouTube.com and Digg.com.
P2P file sharing (‘peer-to-peer’) is the most voluminous Internet activity today. P2P is the cooperative trading of files amongst thousands of individual users. P2P participants install special software on their computers, and then voluntarily share their music, movies, eBook’s, and software files with each other.
E-commerce is ‘electronic commerce’ the transacting of business selling and buying online. Every day, billions of dollars exchange hands through the Internet and World Wide Web. Sometimes, the e-commerce is your company buying office products from another company (business-to-business ‘B2B’ e-commerce). (e.g. SnapDeal, Amazon, PayTM)
A bookmark is a marker that you can place on web pages and files. Bookmarks/Favorites can be made using your right mouse click menu, or the menus/toolbars at the top of your web browser. Bookmarks/Favorites can also be made on your Mac or Windows computer files.
Add-ons are custom software modifications. User optionally install add-ons to improve the power of their Web browsers or office software. Examples include a custom eBay toolbar for your Firefox browser, a new search feature for your Outlook email.
Plugins are a special kind of web browser add-on. Plugins are essentially required add-ons, if you wish to view very specialized web pages. Examples include Adobe Flash or Shockwave player, Microsoft Silverlight player, Adobe Acrobat pdf reader.
‘Spam’ has two meanings. 1) Spam can mean ‘the rapid repetition of a keyboard command’. But more commonly, 2) spam is the jargon name of ‘unwanted/unsolicited email’. Spam email is usually comprised of two sub-Categories: high-volume advertising, and hackers attempting to lure you into divulging your passwords.
Filtering is the popular-but-imperfect defense against spam. Filtering uses software that reads your incoming email for keyword combinations, and then either deletes or quarantines messages that appear to be spam.
Encryption and Authentication
Encryption is the mathematical scrambling of data so that it is hidden from eavesdroppers (unauthorized users). Encryption uses complex math formulas (‘ciphers’) to turn private data into meaningless gobbledygook that only trusted readers can unscramble. Encryption is the basis for how we use the public Internet as a pipeline to conduct trusted business, like online banking and online credit card purchasing. On the provision that reliable encryption is in place, you’re banking information and credit card numbers are kept private.
Firewall is a generic term to describe ‘a barrier against destruction’. It comes from the building term of a protective wall to prevent the spreading of house fires or engine compartment fires. In the case of computing, ‘firewall’ means to have software and/or hardware protecting you from hackers and viruses.
Archives and Archiving
A computer ‘archive’ is one of two things a compressed container of multiple smaller data files, or a purposeful long-term storage of files that are not going to be used often. In some cases, an archive can be both.
Apps and Applets
Apps and applets are small software applications. They are designed to be much smaller than regular computer software, but still provide very useful functions. Lately, apps are very popular with cell phone and mobile platforms; specifically with the Apple iPhone and the Google Android phone.
Cloud computing is defined as a type of computing that relies on sharing computing resources rather than having local servers or personal devices to handle applications. As part of the cloud computing model, ‘Software as a Service’ is the business model that claims people would rather rent software than actually own it. With their web browsers, users access the cloud of the Internet, and log into their online rented copies of their software.
TYPES OF CLOUD COMPUTING
Private Clouds, Hybrid Clouds, Public Clouds
Quantum networks form an important element of quantum computing and quantum cryptography systems. Quantum networks allow for the transportation of quantum information between physically separate quantum systems. Quantum network use is superconducting wire.